Sanitation Crisis in Unsewered Slum Areas

Project Output (PhD theses, articles, MSc theses, etc.)

Please contact Jan Willem Foppen to obtain articles or a pdf of the research output.

PhD Theses

Peer reviewed articles (updated January 2015)

  • Nyenje, P.M., Foppen, Uhlenbrook, S. and Lutterodt, G., 2015. Using hydro-chemical tracers to assess impacts of unsewered urban catchments on hydrochemistry and nutrients in groundwater. Hydrological processes., Vol. 28, Pp 5860-5878, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10070.
  • Chung, J.W., Foppen, J.W., Izquierdo, M., Lens, P.N.L., 2014. Removal of Escherichia coli from saturated sand columns supplemented with hydrochar produced from maize. Journal of Environmental Quality, 43 (6), pp. 2096-2103, DOI:10.2134/jeq2014.05.0199
  • Nyenje, P.M., Havik, J.C.N., Foppen, J.W., Muwanga, A. and Kulabako, R., 2014. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area.Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, Volume 164, Pp. 259-274, DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.06.011.
  • Katukiza, A.Y., Ronteltap, M., Niwagaba, C., Kansiime, F., Lens, P.N.L., 2014. Grey water treatment in urban slums by a filtration system: optimisation of the filtration medium. Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 146, Pages 131-141, DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.07.033
  • Minani, J.M.V., J. W. Foppen and P. N. L. Lens, 2014. Sorption of cadmium in columns of sand supported hydrothermally carbonized particles. Water Science & Technology,  Volume 69, Issue 12, 2014, Pp. 2504-2509, DOI: 10.2166/wst.2014.175
  • Van Dijk, M.P., S. Etajak, B. Mwalwega, and J. Ssempebwa, 2014. Financing sanitation and cost recovery in the slums of Dar es Salaam and Kampala. Habitat International, Volume 43, July 2014, Pp 206-213, DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.02.003.
  • Nyenje, P.M., Meijer, L.M.G., Foppen, J.W., Kulabako, R., and S. Uhlenbrook, 2014. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1009–1025. DOI:10.5194/hess-18-1009-2014.
  • Katukiza, A.Y., Ronteltap, M., Niwagaba, C., Kansiime, F., Lens, P.N.L., 2014. Grey water characterisation and pollution load in an urban slum. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. DOI: 10.1007/s13762-013-0451-5
  • Murungi, C., and M.P. van Dijk. Emptying, Transportation and Disposal of feacal sludge in informal settlements of Kampala Uganda: The economics of sanitation. Habitat International, Vol. 42, April 2014, Pages 69–75, DOI: 10.1016/j.habitatint.2013.10.011.
  • Katukiza, A.Y., Ronteltap M., van der Steen, J.W., Foppen, J.W.A., Lens, P.N.L., 2014. Quantification of microbial risks to human health caused by waterborne viruses and bacteria in an urban slum. Journal of Applied Microbiology Vol. 116, Issue 2, pages 447–463, February 2014, DOI:10.1111/jam.12368.
  • Lutterodt, G. S., Foppen, J.W. and S. Uhlenbrook, 2014. Escherichia coli strains harvested from springs in Kampala, Uganda: cell characterization and transport in saturated porous media. Hydrological Processes Vol. 28, Pages 1973–1988 (2014) (DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9733).
  • Katukiza, A.Y., Temanu H., Chung J.W., Foppen, J.W.A., Lens P.N.L., 2013. Genomic copy concentrations of selected waterborne viruses in a slum environment in Kampala, Uganda. Journal of Water and Health (DOI:10.2166/wh.2013.184).
  • Nyenje, P.M., Foppen, J.W., Uhlenbrook, S., Kulabako, R and Muwanga, A., 2013. Nutrient pollution in shallow aquifers underlying pit latrines and domestic solid waste dumps in urban slums. Journal of Environment Management Vol. 122, 15 June 2013, Pages 15–24 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.02.040).
  • Chung, J.W., J.W. Foppen, and P.N.L. Lens, 2013. Low cost home-made two-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for Rotavirus detection in environmental samples. Food Environ. Virol. (2013) 5:126-133 (DOI: 10.1007/s12560-013-9111-7).
  • Lutterodt, G., Foppen, J.W., and S. Uhlenbrook, 2012. Transport of Escherichia coli strains isolated from natural spring water. J. Contam. Hydrol. 140-141 (2012) 12–20 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2012.08.011).
  • Lutterodt G., Foppen, J.W.A., Maksoud, A, Uhlenbrook, S., 2011. Transport of Escherichia coli in 25 m quartz sand columns. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 119, p 80–88 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2010.09.010).
  • Schouten, M.A.C., and R. W. Mathenge, 2011. Communal sanitation alternatives for slums: A case study of Kibera, Kenya. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 35, Issues 13-14, 2010, Pages 815-822 (DOI: 10.1016/j.pce.2010.07.002).
  • Isunju, J.B., Schwartz, K., Schouten, M.A., Johnson, W.P., van Dijk, M.P. Socio-economic aspects of improved sanitation in slums: A review (2011) Public Health, 125 (6), pp. 368-376 (DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2011.03.008).
  • Katukiza A.Y., Ronteltap, M., Niwagaba, C.N., Foppen, J.W.A., Kansiime, F., Lens, P.N.L., 2011. Sustainable Sanitation Technology Options for Urban Slums. Biotechnology Advances; doi:10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.02.007 (DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2012.02.007).
  • Foppen J.W.A., Lutterodt G., Roling W., and Uhlenbrook S., 2010. Towards understanding inter-strain attachment variations of Escherichia coli during transport in saturated quartz sand. Water Research 44 (2010) 1202 – 1212 (DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.08.034).
  • Nyenje, P.M., Foppen, J.W., Uhlenbrook, S., Kulabako, R., Muwanga, A., 2010. Eutrophication and nutrient release in urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa - A review. Science of the Total Environment 408, p. 447–455 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.10.020).
  • Foppen, J.W.A., Kansiime, F., 2009. SCUSA: integrated approaches and strategies to address the sanitation crisis in unsewered slum areas in African mega-cities. Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology 8 p. 305–311 (DOI: 10.1007/s11157-009-9174-y).
  • Katukiza, A.Y., Ronteltap, M., Niwagaba, C.B. Kansiime, F. Lens, P.N., 2010 Selection of sustainable sanitation technologies for urban slums — A case of Bwaise III in Kampala, Uganda.  Science of the Total Environment 409(1), 52-62 (DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.09.032).
  • Lutterodt, G., Basnet, M., Foppen, J.W.A., and S. Uhlenbrook, 2009. The effect of surface characteristics on the transport of multiple Escherichia coli isolates in large scale columns of quartz sand. Water Research 43 (2009), p. 595-604. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2008.11.001.
  • Lutterodt, G., Basnet, M., Foppen, J.W.A., Uhlenbrook, S., 2009. Determining minimum sticking efficiencies of six environmental Escherichia coli isolates. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology 110 p. 110–117 (DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2009.09.005).

Articles in other journals/books:

  • Monney, I., Odai, S.N., Buamah, R., Awuah, E., and P.M. Nyenje, 2013. Environmental impacts of wastewater from urban slums: case study - Old Fadama, Accra. International Journal of Development and Sustainability. ISDS Article ID: IJDS13031904.

Papers in proceedings:

  • Nyenje, P., 2010. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater and surface water in urban slum dominated catchments in Sub-Saharan Africa.WATERNET Conference 2010.
  • Nyenje P. 2011. Tackling Groundwater Pollution in Informal Settlements. Proceedings of the 16th National Technology Conference of the Uganda Institution of Civil Engineers on "A Developing Uganda, the Engineers’ Test”. 25–27th May 2011. Kampala, Uganda. p. 82–91.

MSc Theses produced (please contact Jan Willem Foppen to obtain a pdf):

  • Albert Oleja, 2009. Identification of sustainable sanitation options for a slum area in Kampala, Uganda. IHE Delft M.Sc. Thesis MWI 09.18.
  • Rose Mathenge, 2009. Diverging perceptions on cummunal sanitation facilities. A case study of Kibera slum. IHE Delft M.Sc. Thesis WM 09.03.
  • Ahmed Maksoud, 2009. Determining the minimum sticking efficiency of Escherichia coli in groundwater. IHE Delft M.Sc. Thesis WSE-HWR 09.06.
  • Samuel Etajak, 2010. The financing of sanitary facilities in urban slums in Kampala.Makerere MSc Thesis August 2010.
  • Olivier Goldschmidt, 2010. Characterization of grey water generated in urban slums and associated microbiological risks: Case of Bwaise, Kampala, Uganda. May 2010. EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland) and IHE Delft.
  • Joseph Lwangwa, 2010. Effect of soil geochemistry on subsurface contaminant transport in urban slums: a case of Bwaise. B.Sc. Thesis number 06/U/5416/PS (206005830), Makerere University.
  • Beatrice Mwalwega, 2010. Analysis of sustainable sanitation options for peri-urban areas. A case Study of Temeke Municipality- Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. MSc. Thesis Integrated Water Resources Management, University of Dar es Salaam.
  • Monney Isaac, 2010. Assessing the impacts of sanitation in unsewered urban slums on water resources. The case of Old Fadama, Accra, Ghana.
  • Lisa Meijer, 2011. Understanding the fate and transport of phosphorus in streams draining an unsewered slum in sub-Saharan Africa. MSc Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) and IHE Delft, Institute for Water Education, Department of Water Science and Engineering.
  • Hayelom Temanu, 2011. Determining genomic copy concentrations of five selected enteric viruses in the surface water of Bwaise slum in Kampala, Uganda, using RT-qPCR. MSc Thesis ES-11.34, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education.
  • Jasper Havik 2012. The fate and transport of nutrients in shallow groundwater and soil of an urban slum area in the city of Kampala, Uganda.. MSc Thesis Universiteit Utrecht and IHE Delft, Institute for Water Education, Department of Water Science and Engineering.

Professional publications, products, and outreach

  • Colloid Transport Conference - Canada: Variability in transport and attachment among 54 Escherichia coli strains in saturated porous media. Presentation by George Lutterodt.
  • IHE Delft PhD Seminar: Comparative financial, institutional and sociological dimensions of alternative sanitation solutions in urban slums. Presentation by John Bosco Isunju.
  • IHE Delft PhD Seminar: Hydrological Aspects of Alternative Sanitation Solutions in Slum Areas in African Mega-Cities. Presentation by Philip Nyenje.
  • IHE Delft PhD Seminar: Low cost integrated sustainable technical sanitation solutions for excreta, grey water and solid waste management in urban slums. Presentation by Alex Katukiza.
  • WATERNET Conference: Slums, Sanitation and the Millennium Development Goals. Presentation (and summary) by Isunju.
  • WATERNET Conference: Sustainable technical sanitation solutions for excreta, grey water and solid waste management in urban slums. Presentation (and summary) by Katukiza.
  • WATERNET Conference: Diverging perceptions on appropriate communal sanitation solutions for slums. A case study of Kibera, Kenya. Presentation (and summary) by Schouten.
  • Ugandan Health Communication Alliance: The SCUSA Project. Presentation by John Bosco Isunju.
  • ASKNet Meeting in Naguru: The SCUSA Project. Presentation by Niwagaba.
  • Analysis of hydrological processes and hydrochemistry of surface and groundwater in urban slum areas in SSA.Presentation by Nyenje (IHE Delft PhD seminar September 2010).
  • Research progress presentation. Presentation by Nyenje at Makerere University (August 2010).
  • Characterisation of grey water generated in an urban slum. Presentation by Alex Katukiza during the IHE Delft PhD Seminar (September 2010).
  • Sanitation in urban slums. Presentation by Alex Katukiza in the IHE Delft Summer School on Sustainable Sanitation (September 2010).
  • Research progress presentation. Presentation by Alex Katukiza at Makerere University (August 2010).
  • SCUSA Presentation for NVVN (United Nations Volunteers). Presentation by Jan Willem Foppen at IHE Delft (October 2010).
  • SCUSA Presentation for IHE Delft Governing Board. Presentation by Jan Willem Foppen at IHE Delft (November 2010).
  • SCUSA Presentation for WaterNet members. Presentation by Jan Willem Foppen at IHE Delft (December 2010).
  • SCUSA Presentation NICHE Project (South Africa). Presentation by Jan Willem Foppen at IHE Delft (November 2010).
  • SCUSA Presentation PROVIDE Project. Presentation by Jan Willem Foppen at Wageningen University (October 2010).
  • Brochure describing field activities and installations related groundwater quality and quantity monitoring (June 2011). Distributed in Bwaise-III slum.
  • Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda. PM Nyenje, J Havik, JW Foppen, S Uhlenbrook. EGU General Assembly 2012, Vienna, Austria 22-27 April 2012.
  • Treatment of grey water from an urban slum with a multi-media filter: Evaluation of its potential using uPVC columns. Platform presentation on IWA world water congress & exhibition 16 ¨21 September 2012, Busan, Korea.
  • Brochure describing SCUSA objectives, activities and research findings. Distributed to different stakeholders in Uganda including private companies, NGOs, CBOs, local community and researchers.
  • News paper article on evidence of pollution from Kampala slums due to poor sanitation in slums in the Uganda Observer to disseminate SCUSA research findings to the wider audience. Title of the article: 'Evidence of pollution from Kampala urban slums - says new research'.
  • Stakeholder workshop (20 March 2012).
  • Community meetings with key informants including local leaders, landlords and tenants in Bwaise III slum to sensitise the community and to get to know their experiences on sanitation.
  • Documentary: Sanitation Crisis in Urban Slums.

Spin-off projects

  • Small Research Project (25 kEURO): Assessment of Characteristics of Wastewater flows from Unsewered urban Slums in African cities.
  • Small Research Project (25 kEURO): Financing sanitation in slums: whose responsibility?
  • SCUSA Outreach Project (12 kEURO)
  • Nuffic Refresher Course (75 kEURO) 'Integrated water and sanitation management in urban slums and the surrounding environment'
  • SCUSA GREY Project (100 kEURO): 'Effect of the construction of 20 grey water filters on drain water quality in Kasubi slum, Kampala'